2) The peeled onion bulb ended up being chopped and measured homogenized.

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The TCP data is received by OR from port a which is processed by TCP and TLS protocols. Then a processed data is sent to the TLS buffer. The read event is called to see and process the information pending within the TLS buffer. This read event will pull the information from TLS buffer to the input buffer. Then a read event process cells from input buffer one at a time. Each OR has routing table which maintains map from source connection and circuit ID to destination connection and circuit ID.

The transmission direction associated with cellular may be dependant on the read event. To append the cellular to your destination circuit the corresponding symmetric key can be used to decrypt / encrypt the payload associated with cellular, replace the present circuit ID with destination circuit ID. The cellular may be written directly for the destination connection when there is no data waiting in output buffer while the write event is put into the big event queue. After calling the write event, the information is flushed to TLS buffer of destination. Then write event pull as many cells as you are able to from circuit to output buffer and add write event to event queue. The next write event carry on flushing data to output buffer and pull cells to output buffer else the cell queued in circuit queue may be sent to system via port B by calling write event twice.

Fig. 2Processing the cells at Onion router

The IP packets in Tor system is extremely dynamic and based on this the cell – counting based attack implemented.

Step 1: FINDING THE TARGET :- The attacker log the information at the exit OR, such as the server host ip and port for a circuit and circuit ID and utilizes CELL – RELAY-DATA to transfer the information stream.

Step 2: ENCODING THE SIGNAL :- Until the write event is called the CELL – RELAY – DATA are waited within the circuit queue. After the write event is called then a cells are flushed into output buffer. Thus the attacker can manipulate the quantity of cells flushed to your output buffer all together. In this manner the attacker can able to embed the secret signal. To encode bit 1, the attacker can flushes three cells from circuit queue and for bit 0, flushes one cellular from circuit queue.

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Step 3: RECORDING PACKETS :- After the signal is embedded within the target traffic it will be transmitted to your entry OR along with target traffic. The attacker at the entry OR will record the received cells and related information and have to determine whether the received cells are CELL – RELAY – DATA cells.

Step four: RECOGNIZING THE EMBEDDED SIGNAL :- The attacker comes into the stage of recognizing the embedded signal because of the recorded cells. With this used the recovery mechanisms. When the original signal is identified the attacker can link the communication between Alice and Bob.

There are two critical problems regarding attack: (1) Encoding signals at exit OR: Two cells are not enough to encode “1” bit. Because if the attacker utilizes two cells to encode bit “1” then it’ll be easily distorted over system as well as hard to recover. If the two cells reach the input buffer at the middle OR, the first cellular will be taken into circuit queue then if the output buffer is empty, 1st cellular are flushed into it. Then a second cellular will be taken to your circuit queue. Because the output buffer isn’t empty, the second cell stays within the circuit queue.essay on business education If the write event is known as, the initial cellular are sent to the system, whilst the second cellular written to your output buffer and wait for the next write event. Consequently, two originally combined cells are put into two separate cells at the middle router. Therefore the attacker at the entry OR will observe two separate cells arriving at the circuit queue. This cells are decoded as two “0” bits, leading the attacker to a wrong detection associated with signal. To manage this matter the attacker should choose at the least three cells for carrying bit “1”.

For transmitting cells, proper delay interval is selected: If the delay interval on the list of cells is too large, users are not able to tolerate the slow traffic and also to transfer the information will choose another circuit. When this problem occurs the attack will fail. And if the delay interval is too little, then it’ll boost the opportunity that cells may combined at middle OR.

(2) Decoding signals at the entry OR: Distortion of signal: Anyway the mixture and division associated with cells may happen because of unpredictable system delay and congestion. This may cause the embedded signal to be distorted while the possibility of recognizing the embedded signal will likely to be paid off. This is why distortion associated with signal, a recovery process may be used, that recognize the embedded signal.

The combination and division of cellular may be categorized into four types: (1) Two kinds of the cellular division for the system associated with signal and (2) Two kinds of the cellular combination for different units of signal. To manage these kinds of division and combination kinds of the cells the recovery algorithm may be used. If the quantity of cells recorded within the circuit queue is smaller than how many the original signal are recovered as either two kinds of cellular division for the system associated with signal. Suppose the amount of cells recorded within the circuit queue is larger than the amount of cells for carrying the signal; the recovered signal will be either two associated with cellular combination for different units of signal. If the signals are recovered in these kinds with k ≤ 2, can start thinking about that these signals are successfully identified otherwise can not be identified.

In this paper, we provided a cell-counting depending attack against Tor network. This could easily confirm the anonymous communication among an individual quickly and accurately which is very hard to detect. The attacker at the exit OR manipulates the transmission of cells from the target TCP stream and embeds a secret signal into the cellular counter variation associated with TCP stream. Then a attacker at the entry OR recognizes the embedded signal using developed recovery algorithms and links the communication relationship on the list of users. In this attack the detection rate is monotonously increasing function utilizing the delay interval and decreasing function of the variance of 1 way transmission delay along a circuit. This attack could drastically and quickly degrade the anonymity service that Tor provides. As a result of fundamental design associated with Tor system, defending against this attack continues to be an extremely challenging task that we are going to investigate in future work.

RECOMMENDATIONS

[1] W. Yu, X. Fu, S. Graham, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, “DSSS-based flow marking method for invisible traceback,” in Proc. IEEE S&P,May 2007, pp. 18–32.

[2] N. B. Amir Houmansadr and N. Kiyavash, “RAINBOW: A robust and invisible non-blind watermark for system flows,” in Proc.16thNDSS, Feb. 2009, pp. 1–13.

[3] V. Shmatikov and M.-H. Wang, “Timing analysis in low-latency MIX systems: Attacks and defenses,” in Proc. ESORICS, 2006, pp. 18–31.

[4] V. Fusenig, E. Staab, U. Sorger, and T. Engel, “Slotted packet counting attacks on anonymity protocols,” in Proc. AISC, 2009, pp. 53–60.

[5] X. Wang, S. Chen, and S. Jajodia, “Tracking anonymous peer-to-peer VoIP calls on the internet,” in Proc. 12th ACM CCS, Nov. 2005, pp.81–91.

[6] K. Bauer, D. McCoy, D. Grunwald, T. Kohno, and D. Sicker, “Lowresource routing attacks against anonymous systems,” Univ. Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, Tech. Rep., Aug. 2007.

[7] X. Fu, Z. Ling, J. Luo, W. Yu, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, “One cell is enough to break Tor’s anonymity,” in Proc. Black Hat DC,Feb.2009[Online]. Available: http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-dc-09/Fu/

BlackHat-DC-09-Fu-Break-Tors-Anonymity.pdf

[8] R. Dingledine, N. Mathewson, and P. Syverson, “Tor: Anonymity online,” 2008 [Online]. Available: http://tor.eff.org/index.html.en

[9] R. Dingledine and N. Mathewson, “Tor protocol specification,”2008 [Online]. Available: https://gitweb.torproject.org/torspec.git?a=blob_plain;hb=HEAD;f=tor-spec.txt

[10] J. Reardon, “Improving Tor using a TCP-over-DTLS tunnel,” Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, Sep. 2008.

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1052 words (4 pages) Essay

7th Aug 2018 Biology Reference this

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The experiment ended up being concerning the isolation and characterization of DNA. The DNA ended up being isolated from the onion. The mass associated with isolated DNA ended up being 15.11 g. The purity of isolated DNA was believed by calculating the ratio based from the absorbance at 260nm and 280nm resulted to 0.671 meaning more protein ended up being absorbed. Meanwhile in denaturation of DNA, the initial absorbance at 260 nm ended up being 1.304 greater than the absorbance at 260 nm after heating which was 1.095.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) may be the genetic material in humans and all other organisms. DNA isolation is the removal of DNA from the cellular which it typically resides. Isolation may be the removal of DNA from the cellular in which it typically inhabits. (1)

Onions are utilized because it contains little number of starch makes it possible for the DNA to be more visible. The filtrate consists of onions treated with salt, distilled water and detergent collectively called as lysis solution. DNA purification is performed by enzymatic degradation of contaminating proteins with ethanol. A spectrophotometer can be used in determining the concentration and purity associated with proteins. (2)

The peeled onion bulb ended up being chopped and measured homogenized. The sample ended up being put into a blender added with an ice-cold lysis solution then for 45 seconds at low speed. Meanwhile, the lysis solution used was prepared beforehand by mixing 5.00 ml of liquid detergent, 5.00 ml of 0.500M EDTA, 10.0 ml of 50% Na Cl solution, and 80 ml of distilled water and put into an ice bath. After homogenizing, the sample ended up being filtered through the cheesecloth while the collected filtrate ended up being put into a 250-ml beaker. A 10.0 ml of 5% pepsin solution ended up being put into the filtrate and put on an ice bath for ten minutes with occasional stirring. Ice cold 30.0 ml of 95% ethanol ended up being pipette to your side associated with beaker containing the sample and stand for ten minutes on ice bath. Once the DNA precipitates appeared at the software associated with solution, the DNA was already ready for isolation. The spooled DNA was transported instantly to a pre-weighed 100-ml beaker to determine the mass and percent yield associated with sample. The isolated DNA was added with 10.0 ml of 95% ethanol then covered with aluminum foil and refrigerated in preparation for the next laboratory procedure.

Little number of DNA sample ended up being put into a test tube added with 1.00 ml of 20% TCA followed by heating the sample for ten minutes in water bath with 1.00 ml distilled water. A 2.00 ml of diphenylamine solution was added then heat once again in a water bath for ten minutes. The colour change ended up being observed while the absorbance associated with sample from 400 nm to 700 nm ended up being scanned to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption. Mean while, little number of the DNA sample ended up being put into a separate test tube full of 5.00 ml distilled water and scanned to see the absorbance at 260 nm then at 280 nm. After determining the A260/A280 value, the sample ended up being heated to boil for five minutes and browse the absorbance adain at 260 nm.

The mass associated with raw sample gathered from onion is 30.4 g. After homogenization and including of pepsin solution and ethanol, DNA precipitates were became visible and used in another beaker. The isolated DNA measures 23 g.

The calculated percentage yield ended up being quite high. Nonetheless, still some sourced elements of error ended up being done while conducting the experiment, the sample with DNA precipitates ended up being disturbed while transferring the DNA. The accumulated DNA precipitates is enough for the next procedure which can be characterization.

Heat denaturation of DNA, causes the double helix structure to unwind and form single stranded DNA. Therefore, the bases unstacked and may take in more light causing a rise after denaturation. But in line with the results gathered, the initial absorbance at 260 nm ended up being 1.304 then ended up being decreased after heating that was 1.095. The calculated per cent escalation in absorbance ended up being 8%. This error is possibly, as a result of heating process. The DNA acquired ended up being quite greater and wasn’t totally heated a short while later causing double helix structure never to unwind and form an individual stranded DNA.

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The filtrate gathered using this experiment ended up being made from onions and lysis solution. Onion ended up being utilized in this study because of low starch content, permitting the DNA to be more visible thinking about the onion as one of the most useful source of DNA. (4)

The used of lysis solution was to split the DNA from extra cellular components and also to keep consitently the location where the DNA won’t be tainted. The NaCL provides NA+ ions which will obstruct the negative cost as of phosphate ends of DNA. Permitting these ends to come nearer so they can precipitate out of a cold solution. The detergent causes the breaking down of the cellular membrane by emulsifying the cellular proteins and lipids. Also, disrupting the polar connections that collectively holds the cellular membrane. The complexes formed with these lipids and proteins causes the precipitate out of solution. Meanwhile, the objective of EDTA is always to chelates metal ions. (5) A Pepsin solution ended up being employed for purification via enzymatic degradation.

DNA is polar due to its extremely charged phosphate backbone rendering it soluble in water. Therefore DNA is insoluble in ice cold ethanol, as a result if the cold ethanol ended up being added, it causes stable ionic bonds to create and precipitate the DNA.

Heating the sample may be the one accountable for the observed color of DNA with diphenylamine. If the DNA is heated with acid, the 2-deoxyribose is transformed into w-hydroxylaevulinic aldehyde, which reacts utilizing the ingredient diphenylamine. Through this, a blue-colored ingredient supposed to make. Within our sample the color observed was green possibly because of the DNA concentration.

The ratio of absorptions at 260 nm vs 280 nm is often used to judge DNA contamination of protein solutions. The nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, absorbs at 260 nm and proteins absorb at 280 nm. In line with the results, the rate ratio of absorptions at 260 nm vs 280 nm is 0.671. Since proteins absorb light at 280 nm, the ratio is low meaning there’s a lot of protein absorbed at 280nm.

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2769 words (11 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Psychology Reference this

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Research methodology relates to the different sequential steps adopted with a researcher in studying the issue with particular objectives in your mind. It is an explanation associated with way of systematic and critical investigation into an identified subject of study. By having an explanation associated with elements within the concept of Research Onion (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007) the researcher will describe the steps adopted for this research. In a nutshell we are able to say that a research methodology may be the description, explanation and justification of numerous ways of conducting research (Sharavanavel, 2006).

3.2. UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH PROCESS

The idea of research onion (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007) are used to comprehend the research process utilized by the researcher.

The main layers in the study onion are research philosophy, research approaches, strategy, choices, time horizon, and methods and ways of data collection. A reason of some these elements of research onion will give you the researcher with needed knowledge to conduct this study (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

Figure : 3.1

Source: Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil (2007)

3.2.1. RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY

An investigation philosophy is really a belief or idea about the collection, interpretation, and analysis of data collected. There are many philosophies are explained in Saunder’s research onion. The most significant among them are Positivism, Realism, interpretative, Objectivism, Subjectivism, Pragmatism, Functionalist, Interpretative, Radical humanist, Humanist and structuralist (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

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Positivism holds reality as stable. an objective view point may be described by this. This philosophy further says that knowledge that aren’t considering positivism is invalid and blurred (Miller Strang & Miller, 2010). Realism is really a philosophy that holds clinical method of development and knowledge . The basic assumption of the philosophy is that which can be really is. It really is independent from the belief associated with people. There are two kinds of realism. The main one is direct while the other critical realism. From the perspective of a direct realist the planet is static and having no change. Critical realism holds change as constant (Buchanam & Bryman,2009). In Pragmatism issues are handled directly. This philosophy is interested in results or truth rather than the maxims related to it. (William James, 2009) This philosophy holds that a concept or theoretical principle should be set based on how it works (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

The philosophy adopted by the researcher in this study realism

3.2.2. RESEARCH APPROACHES

The 2nd last layer associated with research onion of Saunders (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007) is research approaches.

Figure:3.2

Source: developed by the author (2010)

There are two kinds of approaches the Deductive and Inductive (Jonker & Pennink, 2009).

3.2.2.1 Deductive Approach

It’s a journey from general to particular. Here the hypothesis while the theory are checked first and then go on to results which can be more specific. Here conclusion follows logically from the available facts (Jonker & Pennink, 2009).

3.2.2.2 Inductive Approach

In this method an empirical observation takes the researcher to a result. Here particular observations will reach to more generalizations and forming up of theories. It really is from particular to general. This process is principally utilized in the qualitative research (Myers, 2009).

3.2.2.3 Quantitative Approach

Quantitative methods always focus on the numbers as well as its frequencies. It doesn’t emphasize in the experience and meanings but quantify the data collected. In quantitative approach the information are susceptible to rigorous and strict analysis (Kothari, 2008).

3.2.2.4. Qualitative Approach

In qualitative Approach the information is collected mainly to explain factors as opposed to reaching to a statistical inference. It is an unstructured exploratory research method. Here the key elements of character, behavior, attitude, opinion etc are subjectively evaluated. (Myers, 2009) often qualitative studies are utilized for explanatory purposes (Kothari, 2008).

This research study is really a qualitative research by having an inductive approach. Here the researcher will appear to the particular situation associated with nurses within the selected hospital and try to go on to the generalization associated with findings.

3.2.3. RESEARCH STRATEGY

The next crucial layer in the study onion is research strategy. There are many techniques that researchers adopt for a particular research study. In Saunders’ research onion various research techniques are explained. A few of the techniques are experiment, survey, action research, example, grounded theory, ethnography and archival research (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

Experimental research is mainly utilized for the research in physical sciences. It really is used to spot the cause effect relationships and verifying inferences. The primary options that come with this technique are isolation of factors, replication of experiment, and quantitative measurement of results (Sharavanavel, 2006).

Survey research studies large and little populations by choosing and studying samples opted for from the populations to learn the relative incidence, distribution and interrelations of sociological and mental variables. This research is mainly utilized to research social and mental factors (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

Example is really a comprehensive study of a social device. Here the topic of the research is really a person, group, or perhaps a social institution. In this research the context is analysed at length. Actual life situations in actual life context is analysed and studied (Sharavanavel, 2006).

Action research is a report of a particular project and problem (Coghlan & Brannick, 2009). The goal of this research may be finding immediate solution for a problem faced in a society. Therefore we can say that action research can be involved with actual life. It studies the ‘what’, ‘how’, and ‘why’ of actual life. In a nutshell it is an try to realize the present problems and a help to predict the long run changes (Jonker & Pennink, 2009).

Grounded theory is really a qualitative research study. It really is mainly utilized within the social sciences. If the conventional clinical method looks to begin the study having a hypothesis this process is adopts the machine of going directly into the information collection first. All of the data collected are put in various codes to spot common factors. From the number of these codes then a theory is formed (Charmaz, 2006).

Ethnography is really a unique qualitative research method. In this study the researcher will remain within the research location. The researcher stays utilizing the population and obtain a first hand information from the particular culture or group (Murchison, 2009).

The final aspect in the study strategy is Archival research strategy. This means the entire study will be in line with the materials associated with study kept in a few archives by various other researchers. In this tactic an enormous amount of data is available and thus often the data remain uncontrollable. It is therefore extremely hard to produce casual conclusions on the foundation of such kinds of data (Graham, Towl &. Crihton, 2010).

In this research the researcher has adopted the strategy of a example to acquire data from the samples selected. The research are conducted on the list of nurses in a single hospital.

3.2.4. CHOICES

The next layer in the study onion is preference. These choices may be split into Mono method, Mixed method and Multi method. In this researcher adopts one strategy for his study from various ways of research. In Mixed method the researcher adopts generally two techniques such as qualitative or quantitative research techniques. In Multi method a number of research techniques are brought together to research or to create a study (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

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In this study associated with occupational stress associated with nurses the researcher has adopted mixed method and multi way of choice. Yet only the qualitative research method is used here by the researcher to accomplish the studies in the occupational stress on the list of nurses.

3.2.5. TIME HORIZONES

Time Horizons can be indicated being a time target fixed. A period limitation is normally fixed for the completion of a task or activity. It means a planning or perhaps a preparation. Here the time period limit for the completion of a research study is explained. There are two kinds of time horizons. The first one is Cross Sectional therefore the second is Longitudinal. In Cross sectional study enough time is prefixed for the completion a study. In longitudinal no time is limitation for the information collection, data analysis, along with other completion associated with research. Behavioral studies often conducted in longitudinal techniques because it needs a very long time for observation (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2009).

In this study associated with occupational stress associated with nurses enough time horizon was cross sectional method that has been adopted by the researcher. Enough time horizon for conducting the research ended up being prefixed and planned. a limited time period ended up being allotted to your researcher to conduct the information collection for the samples selected.

Probably the most crucial elements in a research study are data collection and data analysis. a systematically collected data as well as its proper analysis will answer a research question. It’s a method having a procedure (Bryman & Bell, 2007). The reliability and credibility of a research is directly put on the measurement of data (Wood & Ross-Kerr, 2010). There are two kinds of data collected for a systematic analysis for any research. These are typically Primary Data and Secondary Data (Kumar, 2008).

Primary Data refers to that particular information which are produced first time or that are produced to meet up with the particular needs associated with investigation at hand. Primary data is collected directly from the respondents or the subjects of experiment (Yin, 2010). Here there’s a proper control over the data gathered (Bhattacharyya, 2006). The major disadvantage here is that it really is additional time consuming. Some times the primary data collection becomes more difficult due to the fact suitable people or samples are not at hand (Reason & Bradbury, 2006).

There are many sourced elements of primary data. These are typically, Questionnaire, Interview Schedules and interviews, Focus groups, Case Studies, Experiments, Observations, Surveys and conversations (Collrel & McKenzie, 2010).

The researcher, in this study, has collected the main supply of data by using interview schedule, and structured questionnaire. The Questionnaire enlists questions, which translate the research objectives into particular questions. The question also needs to encourage the respondent so the necessary information is obtained. In this study the researcher has employed both factual in addition to opinion and attitude questions.

3.2.6.2. Secondary Data

Secondary data is perhaps not collected directly from the respondents. Here the information was collected by many others (Bhattacharyya, 2006). It may be assortment of the report on the primary data. The assortment of secondary data is inexpensive with regards to time and economy. For a comparison of two kinds of statistics and reaching to an inference secondary data can be very effective. Yet the secondary data can be outdated and can be subjective because it has evolved within the head of someone else. Secondary data may be uncontrollable and vast which makes it to be inappropriate for a particular purpose (Saunders, Lewis, & Thomhil, 2007).

There are many sourced elements of secondary data. Books, Journals, News Papers, Reports and publications, Articles in publications and sites, government statistics, company or organization statistics (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

In this study to gather the secondary data the researcher are utilizing various materials regarding the main topic of the study. A number of books, health related articles, health journals, website pages, hospital statistics and news papers are employed for the assortment of secondary data.